completed at this:
November 24th, 1980 

 Maiden flight on this:
April 12th, 1981


The space shuttle Columbia opened the American Space shuttle program with its first start in April 1981. The Orbiter with the official name OV 102 was christened Columbia on the name of the American sailing ship, the 1792 of Boston ran out and the muzzle of the flux found out Columbia. In addition, one of the first American ships which succeeded a world circumnavigation as well as help to carried the same name for the command module the first flight of the space shuttle was Columbia for Apollo 11. already for provided in 1979, was, however, delayed because of problems with the fastening of the heat shield plates and the construction of the main jet engines by almost two years. Astronaut veteran John Young and newcomer Robert Crippen were as a crew for the maiden flight selected the Columbia. The start appointment for the enterprise described as STS 1 (Engl. Space Transportation system, Raumtranspo rtsystem) was finally fixed till April 10th, 1981, had to be postponed, however, because of a computer perturbation once again to two days. On April 12th at 7.00 hours local civil time actually then lifted the Columbia of the start platform, with the Space shuttle era had started. Apart from a couple of plates of the heat shield lost away reached the Columbia it came through their earth orbit without technical problems and also the re-entry into the earth's atmosphere without difficulties. With a textbook-like landing on Edwards Air Force cousin in California it completed a //num(54) stündig//, 1,720,000 km long, fault-free flight. In November 1981 got up renewed on the start platform the Columbia and you sent on its second journey on November 12th (STS 2.) This flight was directional for the further development of the space-travel: Before, a spacecraft which returns to the space hadn't given it yet and this trick in another the following year just still three times which repeated Columbia. This flights (STS 5) became two satellites to the space brought, with what the commercial use of the space shuttle started on the last one. After this this Columbia year "break" had since the new Orbiter Challenger was put into service and took on the uses of shuttles. Only in November 1983 it flew (STS 9) again and the first European space laboratory Spacelab took to the orbit. The crew was six Mann for the German astronaut Ulf Merbold, below them. Became Spacelab also at the mission STS 40 to space flown, a mission, which completely was in space in the sign of the reconnaissance of the possible life of people. After their eleventh flight became the Columbia to its "place of birth" in Palmdale, California, brought back and generally overhauled. In addition, it was for EDO (extended duration orbiter operation) prepares so that stays of up to 16 days in space are possible. In June 1992, the first longer mission (only a couple of hours less than two weeks) took place than the U.S. Mikrogravitations laboratory (USML 1) was taken to the orbit (STS 50). Even longer uses followed, the highlight was STS 80 in November/December 1996 when they were away with an international Spacelab flight almost 17 days incessantly.

The flights of the Columbia:

 1   12 Apr 81   STS-1
 2   12 Nov 81   STS-2
 3   22 Mrz 82   STS-3
 4   27 Jun 82   STS-4
 5   11 Nov 82   STS-5
 6   28 Nov 83   STS-9
 7   12 Jan 86   STS-61-C
 8   08 Aug 89   STS-28
 9   09 Jan 90   STS-32
10   02 Dez 90   STS-35
11   05 Jun 91   STS-40
12   25 Jun 92   STS-50
13   22 Okt 92   STS-52
14   26 Apr 93   STS-55
15   18 Okt 93   STS-58
16   04 Mrz 94   STS-62
17   08 Jul 94   STS-65
18   20 Okt 95   STS-73
19   22 Feb 96   STS-75
20   20 Jun 96   STS-78
21   19 Nov 96   STS-80
22   04 Apr 97   STS-83
23   01 Jul 97   STS-94
24   19 Nov 97   STS-87
25   17 Apr 98   STS-90
26   23 Jul 99   STS-93

On April 12th, 1981 starts the Columbia for its maiden flight (STS 1) and the Space shuttle starts with that with program of the NASA ... ...




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