Distance determination in astronomy

Examples of typical distances

Sun, earth, moon

 

Radius in km

Distance to the earth in km

Radius into earth radiuses

Distance into earth radiuses

Sun

696 000

149 600 000

109

23400

Eath

6 393

 

1

 

Moon

1 738

384 000

0,27

60

 The range of the solar system

 

big half axis in aes

Period

Radius into earth radiuses

Mass into grounding masses

Sun

 

 

109

332943

Mercury

0,39

88 d

0,38

0,055

Venus

0,72

225 d

0,95

0,815

Earth

1

1 a

1

1

Mars

1,52

1,9 a

0,53

0,107

Jupiter

5,20

11,9 a

11,2

318

Saturn

9,54

29,5 a

9,4

95,1

Uranus

19,18

84 a

3,98

14,6

Neptun

30,06

165 a

3,88

17,2

Pluto

39,06

248 a

0,17

0,0017

    We use the distance annoyance point for the illustration of the maximum distance of Pluto to the sun -- , for gate on a football field the following picture arises so:

 

The action circle of the "player" Jupiter already then lies clearly with 7.2 m within the annoyance circle (9.15 m).

 We can recognize the inner planets on an extension of the annoyance circle. The radius of the sun would behave about 7 mm in this model, which circulates earth through the distance 1.5 m, Mars at 2.3 m.

 The neighbors of the sun

Choice of the next stars

Star

Constellation

Distance in Lj

a Centauri

Centaur

4,3

Barnards arrow star

Ophiuchus

5,9

Wulf 359

Lion

7,7

Sirius

big Dog

8,7

61 Cygni

Swan

11,1

Prokyon

littel Dog

11,3

    Pluto is, approx. 28 m from the starting point away in this model the sun has a radius of 6 mm.

Our galaxy

is a spiral galaxy . The sun isn't in the center but in one of the branches. The orders of magnitude are in the following represented in a side view:

    A possible side view and a look from above on the spiral arms could look so:

  Space Telescope Science Institute  

The neighbor GalaxiesSmaller Galaxies find themselves most of about 20 in a radius of approx. 700 kpc around our Milchstrasse. One calls this collection the local group. The data of the most important members are:

 

 

Constellation

Diameter

Distance

Milky Way

 

31 kpc

 

big Magellansche cloud

Dorado

 

48 kpc

little Magellansche cloud

Dorado

 

56 kpc

Andromeda fog

Andromeda

50 kpc

680 kpc

M33

Triangle

50 kpc

680 kpc

This already points, that Galaxies happen frequent in groups, sogenannten Galaxy heap . the local group probably forms a small group on the edge of the Virgo heap.


Galaxy heap

 

Distance of the center

Number of Galaxies

lokal Group

 

20

Virgo-heap

70 Mpc

11000

Corona-Borealis-heap

400 Mpc

 

Methods of the distance regulation

Objekts

Methods

Range

Sun, Planets

ae = 149 600 000 km trigonometric measurings, radar echos, Kepler law for mean distance for earth -- for sun
 

Solarsystem

next star

a trigonometric parallax 1 PC = 206265 aes; 1 light year = 0.3066 PC = 63240 aes

to 10 PC, with great inaccuracies to 100 PC

Hyaden

Star current parallax

42 pc

Milky Way

spectroscopic parallax

 

Galaxy

Cepheiden brightest stars, sphere star cluster Supernovae

till ca 4 Mpc 
30 Mpc 
200 Mpc

Galaxy heap

brightest elliptic Galaxies

10 000 Mpc ?

 

 

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