Apollo 8 (AS 503)

NASA-Archiv: Botton Apollo 1Commanding officer:
Frank Borman
Pilot of the command module:
Capt. James A. Lovell, Jr.
Pilot of the lunar module:
Major William A. Anders

After with Apollo Mission the command and supply modulus was tested substantially 8 should saturn V with Apollo on one be the lunar module carried and tested in the earth orbit now. Since there still, however, were technical difficulties at the ferry and the start couldn't be copied out any more, the persons responsible for a flight made up their mind to the moon only with the command and supply modulus.

The start was carried out on 21 December 1968 at 7.50 hours of American east time with the astronauts James A. Lovell, William A. Anders and Frank Borman. The third start of one was saturn V but the first one manned flight with it. The start was a complete success. After the jet engines of the first degree were switched off, this separated himself from the second degree in an altitude of 65 kilometers. Divide offing the second degree was carried out faultlessly also after burning off the fuel. After the rescue tower was repeled, the jet engine of the third degree which then reached an orbit to the start around the earth with the Apollo spaceship 11 minutes and 35 seconds ignited.

NASA-Archiv: 3. Stufe der Saturn V

To leave the earth orbit now, Apollo 8 had to be taken to escape velocity. To make this possible the jet engine was, after reach for it the orbit was switched off, ignited again. It burned 5 minutes and 17 seconds. The speed increased from 28044 to 39564 kilometers per hour (escape velocity). The command and Versogrungsmodul of the third degree came loose about 15 minutes later. Apollo 8 was on the way to the moon.

Approx. 69 hours after the start Apollo 8 had reached the moon. The jet engine of the supply modulus was ignited for approx. 4 minutes to reduce the present speed from 9198 to 3287 kilometers per hour. The maneuver was carried out behind the moon and there wasn't any radio link with the ground control. Apollo 8 was at the first two Umrundungen at an elliptical trajectory. For this reason the jet engine was ignited at the third circulation again to catch a perfectly circular trajectory. Apollo 8 then still orbited the moon in a distance of approx. 112 kilometers to the surface eight times. Numerous measuring druchgeführt and possible places to land were photographed.

NASA-Archiv: Rückseite des Mondes

The astronauts represented your impressions before. Borman talked " disastrous, authoritative solitude, no place live and work around there about one ". Jim Lovell described the moon surface so: It looks " as burned " plaster or gray sea sand and finally talked about "dirty sea sand with a lot of footprints and potholes" differently. The astronauts of one saw the spacecraft of the rear page of the moon hervorkam, this one, for beeindruckensten pictures always then if well: The rising earth.

NASA-Archiv: Die aufgehende Erde The jet engine ignited for the return flight to the earth on December 25th, 1968, 20 minutes before Apollo 8 of the rear page of the moon returned. Apollo 8 landed on water 5000 meters remotely from the country point in the pacific ocean on December 27th, 1968, 147 hours after the start.



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