Apollo 11 (AS 506)

NASA-Archiv: Botton Apollo 11Commanding officer:
Neil Armstrong
Pilot of the command module:
Michael Collins
Pilot of the lunar module:
Edwin Aldrin
Name of the command module: Columbia
Name of the lunar module: Eagle

One of the greatest adventures of mankind started on July 16th, 1969: The landing of people on the moon. Millions spectators have approx. 1 come in Brevard Country to see the start of Apollo 11 with the astronauts Niel Armstrong, Michael Collins Und Edwin Aldrin directly.

At 9.32 hours of American east time lifted the saturn V of the ramp 39 ares on the dot. After the first and second cauterized degree of the rocket the 3rd layer still two and a half minutes of long till the onboard computers worked after reach for it switched the orbit off. Within the following 2 hours and 20 minutes the board systems were checked and the preparations made for the second ignition of the third degree. By this ignition the spaceship is from its orbit shoved. It was then later another 24 minutes as far as: After one and a half earth circulations ignited the jet engine, took Apollo 11 to escape velocity and put the exact course to the moon. The maneuvers which were tested with Apollo 9 in the earth orbit and with Apollo 10 in the course trajectory to the moon were carried out as of 12.48 hours (3 hours and 16 minutes to the start):

  • Separation of the spaceship "Columbia" from the 3rd degree in which the lunar module is.

  • Twist of the spaceship by 180 degrees at a distance of 30 meter.

  • Approach towards the third degree or lunar module "eagle".

  • Ankopplung of the lunar module.

    After Collins had put the creeping tunnel between the two vehicles with air under pressure and took some board systems of the lunar module into operation, it drew these with the help of the tax nozzles out of the third degree at 13.42 hours. An evasive action was carried out with the third degree 30 minutes later by igniting the jet engine of the supply modulus for approx. 3 seconds. The spaceship was then moved in a twist around the longitudinal axis to prevent a one-sided heating by the sun. The astronauts were allowed to have a sleep break 13 hours and 30 minutes to the start. So they prepared for the night's rest and fell asleep half an hour later.

    On the second day at 10.30 hours (25 hours after the start) Apollo 11 had put the half of the way (192000 km) back. At 12.17 hours (26 hours and 45 minutes to the start), a course correction was carried out and but so exactly that the two next corrections could be dropped. After a check of the board systems and some navigation measuring one of several became sent television broadcast in the evening hours. The spaceship had covered a distance of 230000 km when another sleep period started for the astronauts at 22.32 hours.

    The distance amounted for 788 km to the moon only at 13.10 hours two days later on Saturday to July 19th, 1969. Armstrong and Aldrin still had changed over into the lunar module on day before to check the systems and instruments. It is 13.13 hours (75 hours and 41 minutes to the start) when Apollo 11 disappears behind the moon and the radio signals fail to appear. The combination lunar module nut ship flies backward now when the main jet engine is ignited for a first Abbremsung at 13.20 hours. Apollo 11 is in an elliptical trajectory now. To reach an almost perfectly circular orbit the jet engine becomes a second ignited. According to this successful maneuver Apollo 11 flies at an altitude of 90 to 121 km over the moon surface now.

    It is July 20th, 1969, the day of the landing on the moon. Edwin Aldrin and Niel Armstrong change over into the lunar module at 8.52 hours (95 hours and 20 minutes to the start). Navigation and communication systems, air supplies and air conditioner are checked. The country legs are delivered four hours later. The separation of the lunar module from the Kommadokapsel is then carried out at 13.45 hours. The spacecrafts slowly leave each other.

    NASA-Archiv: Krater in der Nähe der Landestelle The way down maneuver of the lunar module starts at 15.08 hours (101 hours and 36 minutes to the start). The jet engine points in direction of flight now and is ignited for approx. 30 seconds. Through this the ferry is slid into an elliptical trajectory and always more approaches the moon surface. Both maneuvers, the separation and the way down take place behind the moon. There are difficulties with the speaking connection at 16.00 hours. It is recommended to swing the ferry by 10 degrees to the right. The second ignition is carried out for the way down five minutes later. A radar is switched on at the same time with whose help the lunar module shall land automatically. After 3 minutes and 39 seconds burning time the altitude amounts to 14 km to the moon surface. The place to land is located 231 km away still. The altitude is 8230 m now a little later -- the computer arouses the alarm reports no. 1201 and 1202. The computer is overtaxed. Housten nevertheless confirms that the reports can be ignored. The altitude at 2300 m is 8 minutes and 26 seconds after the ignition and the country place calculated by the computer is visible to the erstenmal. There himself is there but one great crater, Armstrong must correct the flight situation by hand and the computer calculate a new country job. Because of the alarm reports, however, the calculations are delayed. The lunar module goes down further. The country place is approx. 600 m away at 150 m of altitude. The landing maneuver threatens to get problematic. Fuel reserves at the disposal are still entitled to him for 85 seconds. Up to the complete emptying of the tank it still lasts approx. 114 seconds. Since this one would lead into the rugged crater from the computer determined value for a landing, Armstrong must be on the lookout to a better country place. The fuel stock gets scarce.

    NASA-Archiv: - Der Adler ist gelandet - Schatten der Mondfähre It intrudes on the semiautomatic control and flies with a higher speed than planned over the crater. Flight control transmits first fuel warnings. The pulse of Armstrong increases on 156 blows per minute. After the lunar module has left the crater behind, Aldrin reads the altitude and the sinking speed from the instruments. Signalling lamps which show the contact of the feeling probes with the ground come on at 1.70 m. The jet engine is switched off two seconds later. Another second later beaches the ferry and Armstrong transmits the message for flight control:

  • ("Tranquility Base here. The Eagle has landed")

    It is 16.17 hours 102 hours and 45 minutes to the start. It isn't sure yet whether the two astronauts may stay. As near the technical check of the equipment is carried out. The message is carried out from Housten one and a half hours later: You can remain, the excursion on the moon is approved and to be more precise four hours in the past as planned. Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin lay out their spacesuits at 19.43 hours. This process lasts for two hours 40 minutes lasting than planned. The oxygen supply is carried out from the knapsack on the back of the astronauts now. After all equipment is checked again, a valve is opened and the atmosphere escapes the lunar module in the inner one to outside. Neil Armstrong opens the hatch of the ferry at 22.39 hours. It creeps carefully Kniend and with the feet first, onto the balcony of the lunar module. Aldrin takes care that Armstrong doesn't drink with his knapsack. The way down then starts at the ladder. It presses a rope which has a Fernsehkammera delivered, arrived on the second degree. At first the picture stands on the head, however, one sees some seconds suiting Armstrong correctly around in the inner of the country plate later. He hasn't touched the moon floor with his feet yet. "I am at the foot of the conductors now", he says. "The foot plates are only 3 -5 centimeters sunk in. The surface seems fine-grained like powder, looked from the proximity. I am climbing off the country modulus now."

    NASA-Archiv: Der erste FußabdruckIt is 22.56 hours and 109 hours 20 minutes to the start. Neil Armstrong enters the moon with the left foot as the first person and addresses the best known sentence to the world well in the space history:

  • ("That is one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind")

    At first he still holds himself tight at the ladder to find out whether he can keep his equilibrium. He says: "The surface is fine and powdery. I can lift it with the shoe top, it sticks in several layers of my boots." After he has got safer, he ventures his first jumps. He takes first pictures with a camera and gathers dust and rock tests with the help of a shovel which he deposits in a container.

    NASA-Archiv: Aldrin beim Abstieg
    After Armstrong has left the lunar module, Aldrin creeps by the hatch of the lunar module on the conductors 15 minutes at 23.11 hours. When it arrives below, holds on to her tightly and jumps back on the first degree again. It then enters the moon as a second person. Armstrong and Aldrin then inspect the lunar module and notice that the jet engine hasn't left any traces.NASA-Archiv: Plakette an AbstiegsstufeYou reveal a plaque which is in a country leg of the ferry. It carries the following text besides the signatures of the three astronauts as well as the signature of the president Richard Nixon:
    "Here people of the planet earth first steped on the moon, A. D., July 1969
    We came in peace for all mankind.

    Experiments Armstrong puts the Fernsehkammera on a tripod after this and she turns towards the lunar module after some panorama photos, where wind Composition experiment then reconciles the astronauts in her immediate proximity (solar) NASA-Archiv: Aldrin, fotografiert von Armstrongwould go through and the American flag build. NASA-Archiv: Aldrin bei der amerikanischen FlaggeMillions of people can then in which the "Kängeruh step" proves to be the best method see as Aldrin comes toward the camera again and again and tries out different translation variants.

    Flight control asks the two astronauts in front of the camera at 23.47 hours. A speaking contact with the president was made in the meantime. Armstrong and Aldrin go and stand next to the American flag and hear the voice of Richard Nixon. Among other things he says:

    "Hello Neil and Buzz! I speak to you in the white House from my office. This is probably the most important telephone call which was ever led. I don't find this one words to tell you how proud we are on this which you have done. I am sure that you recognize together with us Americans which great performance this is." With a busy voice Armstrong answered: "Thank Mr. president. It is a great honor for us as representatives not for the people only of the United States of being here but also for the peace full people of all nations."



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